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Overview: 
A short description of the available technology.
Surface deformation caused by shallow underground mining poses a risk to health and safety, as well as infrastructure and the environment. Azimuth is designed to detect, measure and monitor mining-induced surface deformation using state-of-the-art satellite imaging technology. The service quantifies millimetre to centimetre scale surface deformation and maps the extent of deforming areas over time. Since deformation over large areas can be monitored remotely, the satellite-based synthetic aperture radar measurements effectively overcome the limitations of conventional monitoring approaches. Frequent image acquisitions by orbiting satellites also mean that routine measurements are possible, allowing for early warning in vulnerable areas.
 
Based on satellite imaging technology and underpinned by a mature information and communications technology (ICT) platform, Azimuth addresses the industry-wide challenge of monitoring mining-induced surface instabilities. The service is provided on a secure, web-accessible platform which includes an e-mail-based notification and alerting protocol. The alerting system will also ensure that surveyors and engineers will be alerted about potentially hazardous situations as soon as they are detected. This ensures that the mining sector effectively becomes an information society that is connected to a system which constantly creates and disseminates new information critical to their operations.
Keywords: 
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Intellectual Property Protection: 
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Market need/opportunity: 
Brief description of the technology’s market need.
The mining industry is a global economic driver, but ground deformation caused by underground mining can have severe consequences. The consequences of mining-induced deformation are so severe that South African legislation forces mining companies to have a deformation monitoring system in place. Current monitoring programmes, based on field-surveying approaches, are ineffective and impractical to implement and fails to provide an early warning capability. 
Value proposition/benefits: 
Brief description of the technology’s benefits.

Azimuth is based on state-of-the-art satellite imaging technology and overcomes the limitations of current monitoring programmes, by providing deformation maps over extended areas undergoing shallow underground mining. This is a remote monitoring service effectively providing millimetre to centimetre scale deformation measurements over large areas, while also providing early warning capabilities. The Azimuth system allows mining companies to proactively manage the risk of surface deformation, thereby minimising the loss of human life and damage to infrastructure.

Uniqueness: 
The attributes of the technology that makes it unique.

This is a remote monitoring service effectively providing millimetre to centimetre scale deformation measurements over large areas, while also providing early warning capabilities. The Azimuth system will provide a 24/7, web-accessible platform for the visualisation of deformation maps and a time-series viewer for visualising the evolution of deforming areas over time. The alerting system also ensures that surveyors and engineers are alerted about potentially hazardous situations as soon as they are detected. This ensures that the mining sector effectively becomes an information society that is connected to a system that constantly creates and disseminates new information critical to their operations. 

Team and expertise: 
The team and expertise behind the technology.
Jeanine Engelbrecht
12 Years experience, Project lead - Azimuth,
Product development, Business development
 
Waldo Kleynhans
PhD, MBA
CSIR Research Group Leader – Satellite SAR Group, Project lead - SeaFAR
 
Nicolene Fourie
PhD Candidate – Environmental Economics
GIS Specialist 
 
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City: 
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Pretoria

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Reference number: 
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